FAQs

General FAQs

What diseases are your canine donors tested for?

All blood products must meet in-house infectious disease standards which includes donors free of Dirofilaria, Lyme, Babesia, Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever, Hepatozoon, Leishmania, Neorickettsia, Bartonella and hemotropic Mycoplasmas (Mycoplasma haemocanis and Candidatus mycoplasma haematoparvum).

What diseases are your feline donors tested for?

All donor cats are free of the following infectious diseases: Feline Immunodeficiency virus, Feline Leukemia virus, Mycoplasma haemofelis, Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum, Candidatus Mycoplasma turicensis, Bartonella spp., Cytauxzoon felis, and Anaplasma spp.

How do I Know Which Product to Order?

The choice of which product is appropriate for each individual patient can only be made on a case by case basis under the careful judgment of the clinician. Please feel free to call us at 1-800-243-5759 for technical support. Most transfusions are component therapy as opposed to whole blood products. ABRI does not recommend the use of whole blood except in specific situations such as hemorrhage. A summary of the component therapy products ABRI can supply for specific conditions click here:

Canine Component Therapy

Feline Component Therapy

 

What is the viability for red cells or whole blood?

The days below are number of days of viability after the blood is collected from the donor - these days are specific to ABRI products.

Feline Stored Whole Blood on CPDA-1 30 Days
Canine Stored Whole Blood on CPDA-1 35 Days
Feline pRBCS 35 Days
Canine pRBCS 42 Days

Are there published standards on canine and feline blood donors?

The American Association of Veterinary Blood Banks (AAVBB) has an extensive reference document on standards for blood banks and transfusion services available for association members. For information about the organization, click here.

In 2005 the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) published a consensus statement. The reference is: Canine and Feline Blood Donor Screening for Infectious Disease. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Volume 19, pages 135-142.

Canine Blood Types FAQ

How many blood types do dogs have?

Research studies have identified up to 11 blood types of dogs based on the presence/absence of RBC antigens (Called Dog Erythrocyte Antigen or DEA). However in routine transfusion medicine, there are only five blood groups considered. These are groups DEA 1, 3, 4, 5 and 7. DEA 3 and 5 have minimal significance. DEA 1 was previously hypothesized to have three distinct subtypes. Recent studies utilizing flow cytometry have demonstrated the three hypothesized subtypes are different expression levels of the same antigen. Dogs may have only one blood group or they may have a combination of groups. Most dogs have a combination of blood groups. Group DEA 4 has a prevalence of 99.9% positivity, and as such is not significant.

What is the typical life span of a transfused red blood cell?

The life span of appropriately matched red blood cells in the dog may be as long as 120 days if concurrent hemolysis is not occurring. If a hemolytic syndrome is the cause of the anemia, the life span of the transfused RBCs will be diminished.

I read the presence or absence of type DEA 1 is important in dogs- why is this?

DEA 1 is highly antigenic and is the main blood type responsible for acute, severe, hemolytic transfusion reactions in dogs. If a DEA 1 negative dog (this dog does NOT have DEA 1 blood type) receives blood from a DEA 1 positive dog, there is a high likelihood of a transfusion reaction if the dog has received a prior transfusion and/or has antibodies to the DEA 1 Antibody.  Even if a DEA 1 negative dog has not had a prior transfusion, there is always the possibility of a transfusion reaction if the dog receives DEA 1 positive blood due to the inherent idiosyncratic nature of transfusions. Approximately 45-55% of the canine population is positive for DEA 1.

What is the clinical significance of the different isotypes of DEA 1?

Any dog which has a DEA 1 isotype is considered a DEA 1 positive dog and can be be transfused with DEA 1 positive blood. A dog which is DEA 1 negative should not be transfused with DEA 1 positive blood to mitigate the possibility of transfusion reactions.

What is the possible outcome of transfusing a DEA 1 negative dog with DEA 1 positive blood?

Though dogs typically lack naturally occurring alloantibodies to DEA 1, administration of DEA 1 positive blood to a DEA 1 negative dog will result in formation of anti DEA 1 antibodies within 10-14 days. As a result, recipients may develop a delayed transfusion reaction to the first transfusion or severe immunologic reactions can develop upon subsequent re-administration of DEA 1 positive blood. The incidence of transfusion reactions following a random second blood transfusion has been estimated to be 15%.

What is the probability of transfusing a DEA 1 negative dog with DEA 1 positive blood when the blood type of neither the donor nor recipient is known (i.e.- both are chosen at random)?

Approximately 25% of random first blood transfusions will be DEA 1 incompatible (i.e. - DEA 1 positive blood administered to a DEA 1 negative dog) and result in development of anti DEA antibodies in the recipient.

How do I determine what blood type(s) my canine donor or recipient has?

There are several methods to determine the presence or absence of certain blood types in dogs. If you wish to do testing in your clinic, we recommend the use of an Alvedia or Rapid Vet card blood typing kit (click for Hematology Supplies). This kit only determines the presence or absence of blood type 1 in dogs. It does not determine whether a dog also has types DEA 3, 4, 5 or 7 nor does it determine whether the dog has antibodies to the DEA 1 blood type.

If you want to determine a more complete blood type profile, our laboratory can provide these services for you. (click for Canine Tests) At the present time, our laboratory can determine the presence/absence of the following blood types in dogs: DEA 1.1, 1.2, 4, and 7. Typing for the presence/absence of DEA types 3 and 5 is not available at this time (see FAQ below). Our lab also tests for the presence/absence of DEA antibodies which are postulated to be clinically significant if the dog in question is going to be used as a donor. All of ABRI's donor dogs are tested prior to utilization in our program and they are DEA antibody free.

Why can you not determine whether a dog has the DEA 3 or 5 blood type?

At this time, production of antisera for identifying DEA 3 and 5 is not available. The probability is only about 5% that a dog would be positive for DEA 3 or 5. In the event that DEA 3 or 5 is present, a delayed removal of red cells from circulation after transfusion may result (this as opposed to the acute hemolytic reaction caused by DEA 1 antigen/antibody interactions which places a dog at immediate risk.) To avoid the unlikely reaction from an incompatible DEA 3 or 5 transfusion, a cross match test should always be performed prior to each transfusion. (Click for Hematology Supplies.) This should always be done as a matter of routine regardless of blood type as a cross match will identify any rare reactions blood typing alone does not identify.

Do you prefer serum or plasma for DEA antibody screen?

Fibrin interferes with DEA antibody determination so serum is preferable. Lipidemia also potentially confounds testing so a fasting serum sample is recommended.

Can I use the DMS typing cards when the dog has autoagglutination?

No, as the cards rely on agglutination for accurate results, if the pet has autoagglutination the cards are not reliable. The Alvedia test kit has been shown to be reliable in autoagglutination. The reference is:
Comparison of gel column, card, and cartridge techniques for dog erythrocyte antigen 1.1 blood typing. Seth et. al. JAVMA 2012. Volume 73, number 2, pages 213-219  

What are the limitations on using whole blood samples for Alvedia testing?

Heparinized blood cannot be used with the Alvedia typing kits. You may use EDTA or citrate blood.

Canine Whole Blood FAQ

Does canine whole blood have viable platelets?

Only fresh whole blood which has not been refrigerated has viable platelets. ABRI can supply this product to you. Please call (800) 243-5759 for more details.

What is the dose rate for administering whole blood to dogs?

The rate of the administration must take into account the condition of the patient. Published recommendations for whole blood administration is 5-10 ml/kg/hr in normovolemic dogs and this rate can be increased in hypovolemic patients up to a maximum of 20 ml/kg/hr. A standard maximum transfusion volume of 20 ml/kg/day is often recommended.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of whole blood to administer to a dog?

Administration of 2 ml of whole blood per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

What are the limitations for using whole blood?

Stored whole blood does not have viable platelets. Only fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood has viable platelets. ABRI maintains DEA 1.1 negative stored whole blood. If you desire either fresh whole blood or a specific DEA type we can fill these custom orders. Please call us for availability/ordering (800-243-5759). If you have a dog that needs both, RBCs and viable platelets component therapy consisting of pRBCS and leukoreduced frozen platelet concentrate are the best options.

What are my options for ordering whole blood from ABRI?

ABRI maintains DEA 1.1 negative stored whole blood. If you desire either fresh whole blood or a specific DEA type we can fill these custom orders. Please call us for availability/ordering (800-243-5759).

I have a dog which needs whole blood ASAP but I do not know the blood type of the recipient and thus do not know which product to order.

Each transfusion is individual to the recipient and it is difficult to make "blanket recommendations" regarding the product to order. We recommend keeping an Alvedia or Rapid Vet card blood typing kit in your office so you can DEA 1 type the recipient. Once you know the DEA 1 status of the patient you can order either DEA 1 positive or DEA 1 negative blood, whichever is appropriate for your particular patient. However in an emergency situation where you are not able to type the recipient, the safest product to administer will be DEA 1 negative or DEA 4 only whole blood. ABRI maintains DEA 1.1 negative stored whole blood. If you desire either fresh whole blood or a specific DEA type we can fill these custom orders. Please call us for availability/ordering (800-243-5759).

I have a dog which is anticipated to need whole blood in a few days. What do you recommend?

We recommend at a minimum typing the recipient and then ordering whole blood based on those results. Under ideal circumstances, major and minor cross matches to either your donor or our donor are also recommended. (Click for Hematology Supplies)

I would like to keep a bag of canine whole blood in my office for emergencies. What product do you recommend I stock?

Each transfusion is individual to the recipient and it is difficult to make "blanket recommendations" regarding the product to order. Current recommendations are to stock DEA 1 negative or DEA 4 only whole blood. ABRI maintains DEA 1.1 negative stored whole blood. If you desire either fresh whole blood or a specific DEA type we can fill these custom orders. Please call us for availability/ordering (800-243-5759).

My canine whole blood arrived with thawed ice packs. The product is still cold to the touch. Are they acceptable to use?

Product shipped at 1-12⁰ C is considered acceptable. One or more bags of whole blood has a HemoTemp™ monitor on the back of the bag - if any of the numbers are visible then the temperature of the blood has not exceed 12⁰C. If no numbers are visible, please contact us immediately (800-243-5759).

How do you interpret the HemoTemp™ monitors?

HemoTemp™ monitors only show what the temperature of the blood unit is at the exact moment that you look at the indicator. It cannot tell you the history of the blood unit. If there is no color in any of the windows then the blood unit is above 12 degrees C or below 0 degrees C. The interpretation of the indicator is based on the color of the numbers. See the HemoTemp™ product bulletin for more information. The HemoTemp™ monitors are used for shipping and indicate temps up to 12 degrees C. Whole blood and pRBCs should not be stored long term at temps above 4 degrees C. Anything above this will significantly reduce viability and shelf life of the product.

We removed our canine whole blood from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We did not spike the port. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

Whole blood must remain at a stable temperature of 1-6⁰ C (34-43⁰F) for long term storage. Once the temperature of the whole blood exceeds 6°C (43⁰F), it must be returned to the refrigerator and used within 24 hours. Blood banking standards state: if canine blood is out of the refrigerator for more than 15 minutes it is considered to be at room temperature, and thus must be stored in the refrigerator and used within 24 hours.

We removed our canine whole blood from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We spiked the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

We do not recommend storage of any blood product for future use once the bag has been spiked.

We inadvertently placed our whole blood in the freezer. Is it safe to use?

No, even if the whole blood was in the freezer for a short period the fragile nature of the RBCs precludes its use if frozen for any time.

We have a bag of whole blood which is a volume larger than we need to use on one particular patient. Can we divide out the bag so that one bag can be used on multiple patients?

Dividing one bag of whole blood into smaller units requires aseptic technique and sterile specialized transfer bags and ports. This practice is not recommended outside of specialized veterinary blood banks. However if you have a sterile blood transfer bag (click here for Transfer Bags & Sets) and you use aseptic technique you may continue to store the blood. However, the veterinary practice assumes all responsibility when conducting this procedure. ABRI sells whole blood and pRBCs in varying sizes to accommodate varying sized dogs.

We have a bag of whole blood which is a volume larger than we need to use on one particular patient. Can we spike the bag with an administration set and administer part of the bag and then save the original bag for a later use?

Once a bag is spiked with a blood administration set and administered to a patient it should be utilized completely within 4 hours. We do not recommend storage of any blood product for future use once the bag has been spiked. Prior to spiking the bag it may be divided as described in the FAQ above (Please see previous FAQ).

My canine whole blood expired 1 or more days ago. Can it still be used?

No, expiration dates are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of any product after its expiration date.

What is the quantitative value of platelets in fresh whole blood?

A 500 ml unit of fresh whole blood obtained from a canine donor is estimated to contain 70 billion platelets - the quantitative value will vary based on the donor’s platelet count at the time of donation. Blood which has been refrigerated does not have viable platelets. When solely a platelet transfusion is required, component therapy with either fresh or frozen platelets will allow transfusion of a leukoreduced product in a concentrated smaller volume.

Reference: Platelet Transfusions: Indications and New Products. E. Davidow. American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine 2010 Forum

 

Feline Blood Type FAQs

How many blood types do cats have?

Cats have three blood types - A, B and AB. Cats are either A or B or AB. Similar to dogs, the blood type designation is based on the erythrocyte antigen present, also known as FEA (Feline Erythrocyte Antigen).

What is the typical life span of a transfused feline red blood cell?

The half-life of appropriately matched red blood cells with no accompanying transfusion or hemolytic processes is 29-39 days. It has been postulated the life span of a transfused feline RBC may be as long as the life span of an autologous RBC- 70 days.

How are cats different than dogs?

Most cats have alloantibodies to the blood type they do not have. For example, an FEA blood-type A cat will have naturally occurring anti-B antibodies. An FEA blood-type B cat will have naturally occurring anti-A antibodies.  FEA blood-type AB cat has no naturally occurring antibodies.

Does this make an AB cat a universal donor?

No, AB cats are not universal donors for whole blood.

What is the significance of these naturally occurring alloantibodies?

Cats do not need to have been sensitized by a previous transfusion in order to have antibodies against the blood type they do not have. There is a great risk for transfusion reaction if they receive a blood type component different than their own. All cats, both donor and recipient, should be typed or cross matched before any transfusion even if it is the first transfusion for the recipient. (Click for Hematology Supplies.)

What are the consequences of administering FEA type B blood to a FEA type A cat?

When FEA type B blood is transfused to a FEA type A cat, the life span of the transfused red blood cells is typically only 2 days.

What are the consequences of administering FEA type A blood to a FEA type B cat?

When FEA type A blood is transfused to a FEA type B cat, in addition to a potentially severe and fatal transfusion reaction, the life span of the transfused red blood cells is typically only a few hours.

How can I type my donor or recipient?

If you wish to conduct the typing in your hospital, we recommend the Alvedia or Rapid Vet blood typing system (Click for Hematology Supplies.) It will determine whether a cat is type A, type B or type AB. If you prefer you may send a blood sample (1 ml EDTA) to our laboratory and we will conduct the blood typing for you (Click for Feline Tests.)

What are the limitations on using whole blood samples for Alvedia testing?

Heparinized blood cannot be used with the Alvedia typing kits. You may use EDTA or citrate blood.

Feline Whole Blood FAQ

What are the limitations for using whole blood?

Stored whole blood does not have viable platelets. Only fresh, unrefrigerated whole blood has viable platelets. ABRI does not keep feline whole blood in stock but we can fill these custom orders. Please call us for availability/ordering (800-243-5759).

What is the dose rate for administering whole blood to cats?

Published recommendations for whole blood administration is 10 ml/kg/hr in normovolemic cats or 2 to 4 ml/kg/hr in a cat with heart disease.

I have a cat which needs whole blood ASAP but I do not know the blood type of the recipient and thus do not know which product to order.

Due to the potentially fatal transfusion reactions which can occur in cats even on their first transfusion it is never safe to administer a transfusion without minimally typing both the donor and recipient. We recommend keeping blood tying kits, either Alvedia or Rapid Vet (click for Hematology Supplies), in your office.  If you order the blood product from us, we will send you type specific blood.

I have a cat which is anticipated to need whole blood in a few days. What do you recommend?

We recommend at a minimum typing the recipient and then ordering whole blood based on those results. Under ideal circumstances, major and minor cross match to either your donor or our donor are also recommended. 

(Click for Hematology Supplies)

We removed our feline whole blood from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We did not spike the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

Whole blood must remain at a stable temperature of 1-6⁰ C (34-43⁰F) for long term storage. Once the temperature of the whole blood exceeds 6°C (43⁰F), it must be returned to the refrigerator and used within 24 hours. Blood banking standards are: if cat blood is out of the refrigerator for more than 5 minutes, it is considered to be at room temperature and thus must be stored in the refrigerator and used within 24 hours.

We removed our feline whole blood from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it.  We spiked the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

We do not recommend storage of any blood product for future use once the bag has been spiked.

We inadvertently placed our whole blood in the freezer. Is it safe to use?

No, even if the whole blood was in the freezer for a short period the fragile nature of the RBCs precludes its use if frozen for any time.

My feline whole blood expired 1 or more days ago. Can they still be used?

No, expiration dates are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of any product after its expiration date.

Does feline whole blood have viable platelets?

Only fresh whole blood which has not been refrigerated has viable platelets. ABRI can supply this product to you. Please call for more details.

I have a cat which needs a blood transfusion immediately but I do not have an in house typing kit. I would like to use my own in house donor. What do you recommend I do?

It is never advisable to transfuse a cat when the blood type of the donor and recipient are not similar. Cross matching is not a reliable test for type compatibility.
Options available are:

  • ABRI can overnight ship typing kits to your clinic.
  • Often local ER or referral centers will loan or sell typing kits.

I have a cat which needs a blood transfusion immediately but I do not have an in house typing kit. I would like to purchase blood from your facility and do not know what type of blood to order. What do you recommend I do?

It is never advisable to transfuse a cat when the blood type of the donor and recipient are not similar. Cross matching is not a reliable test for type compatibility.
Options available are:

  • ABRI can overnight ship typing kits to your clinic and you can order the blood based on those results.
  • Often local ER or referral centers will loan or sell typing kits and you can order the blood based on those results.
  • Overnight the recipient’s blood to our Michigan location and we can type and send you correctly typed blood. Turn around time for these emergency orders can be within one day if prior arrangements are made. Please call our Michigan location directly (517-851-8244) to place this order.
  • Order a blood typing kit and the most common blood type, type A, noting if the recipient is type B or AB, the blood you have received will not be suitable. Blood products are non-returnable and non-refundable.

I need to collect blood for a cat transfusion but do not have any ACD anti-coagulant in stock. What should I do?

The best option is to use the prefilled anticoagulant form either a 250 ml or 450 ml canine blood collection bag. Regardless of the anti-coagulant (CPD or CDPA-1), the ratio of anti-coagulant to whole blood is still 1 : 7 (one milliliter of anti-coagulant for each 7 ml of whole blood).

How much whole blood can a cat donate?

Variability exists in the literature depending on the author. Standard collection volumes are 10-12 ml/kg of LEAN body weight. Because of the small circulatory volume of cats, feline donors should receive replacement IV fluids when possible.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of whole blood to administer to a cat?

Administration of 2 ml of whole blood per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

My feline whole blood arrived with thawed ice packs. The product is still cold to the touch. Are they acceptable to use?

Product shipped at 1-12⁰ C is considered acceptable. One or more bags of whole blood has a HemoTemp™ monitor on the back of the bag - if any of the numbers are visible then the temperature of the blood has not exceed 12⁰C. If no numbers are visible, please contact us immediately (800-243-5759).

How do you interpret the HemoTemp™ monitors?

HemoTemp™ monitors only show what the temperature of the blood unit is at the exact moment that you look at the indicator. It cannot tell you the history of the blood unit. If there is no color in any of the windows then the blood unit is above 12 degrees C or below 0 degrees C. The interpretation of the indicator is based on the color of the numbers. See the HemoTemp™ product bulletin for more information. The HemoTemp™ monitors are used for shipping and indicate temps up to 12 degrees C. Whole blood and pRBCs should not be stored long term at temps above 4 degrees C. Anything above this will significantly reduce viability and shelf life of the product.

Canine pRBCs FAQ

Do canine pRBCs have viable platelets?

No, only fresh whole blood which has not been refrigerated has viable platelets. ABRI can supply this product to you. Please call (800) 243-5759 for more details.

We removed our canine pRBCs from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We spiked the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

We do not recommend storage of any blood product for future use once the bag has been spiked.

Are canine pRBCs blood type specific?

Yes.

Your product list has three different pRBCS blood types listed. What do the designations mean?

Because dogs have so many blood types and one dog many possess multiple blood types, we have classified our donors into one of three categories to simplify the ordering of product. Below is a chart which explains this categorization.

Category

Definition of categorization

Clinical Significance

DEA 4 positive only

This donor has DEA type 4 only and does not have DEA types 1.1, 1.2, 3, 5 or 7

This is an appropriate choice when the DEA status of the recipient is unknown.

DEA 1.1 Negative

This donor does not have DEA 1. However, it may also have any or all of the following blood types: DEA 3, 4, 5, 7

Lacking DEA 1 makes this dog a safer donor than a DEA 1 positive dog when the blood type of the recipient is unknown. There is no advantage to using DEA 1 negative blood in a DEA 1 positive recipient.

DEA 1.1 Positive

This donor does have DEA 1 and it may also have any or all of the following blood types: DEA 3, 4, 5, 7

This blood is appropriate in a DEA 1 positive recipient. DEA 1 positive blood should only be used in DEA 1 positive dogs.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of pRBCS to administer to a dog?

Administration of 1 ml of pRBCS per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

I have a dog which needs pRBCs but I do not know the blood type of the recipient and thus do not know which product to order.

Each transfusion is individual to the recipient and it is difficult to make "blanket recommendations" regarding the product to order. We recommend keeping an Alvedia or Rapid Vet card blood typing kit (click for Hematology Supplies) in your office so you can DEA 1 type the recipient. Once you know the DEA 1 status of the patient you can order either DEA 1.1 positive or DEA 1.1 negative blood, whichever is appropriate for your particular patient. However, in an emergency situation where you are not able to type the recipient, the safest product to administer will be DEA 4 only pRBCs. DEA 1.1 negative is a secondary alternative.

I have a dog which is anticipated to need pRBCs in a few days. What do you recommend?

We recommend at a minimum typing the recipient and then ordering pRBCs based on those results. Under ideal circumstances, major and minor cross match to either your donor or our donor are also recommended (Click for Hematology Supplies) or Canine Tests).

I would like to keep a bag of canine pRBCs in my office for emergencies. What product do you recommend I stock?

Each transfusion is individual to the recipient and it is difficult to make "blanket recommendations" regarding the product to order. Current recommendations are to stock DEA 4 only pRBCs. DEA 1.1 negative is a secondary alternative.

My canine pRBCs arrived with thawed ice packs. The product is still cold to the touch. Are they acceptable to use?

Product shipped at 1-12⁰ C is considered acceptable. One or more bags of pRBCs has a HemoTemp™ monitor on the back of the bag - if any of the numbers are visible then the temperature of the blood has not exceed 12⁰C. If no numbers are visible, please contact us immediately. (800-243-5759)

How do you interpret the HemoTemp™ monitors?

HemoTemp™ monitors only show what the temperature of the blood unit is at the exact moment that you look at the indicator. It cannot tell you the history of the blood unit. If there is no color in any of the windows then the blood unit is above 12 degrees C or below 0 degrees C. The interpretation of the indicator is based on the color of the numbers. See the HemoTemp™ product bulletin for more information. The HemoTemp™ monitors are used for shipping and indicate temps up to 12 degrees C. Whole blood and pRBCs should not be stored long term at temps above 4 degrees C. Anything above this will significantly reduce viability and shelf life of the product.

We removed our pRBCs from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We did not spike the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

pRBCs must remain at a stable temperature of 1-6⁰ C (34-43⁰F) for long term storage. Once the temperature of the pRBCs exceeds 6°C (43⁰F), it must be returned to the refrigerator and used within 24 hours. Blood banking standards state: if canine pRBCs are out of the refrigerator for more than 15 minutes, it is considered to be at room temperature and thus must be stored in the refrigerator and used within 24 hours.

We inadvertently placed our pRBCs in the freezer. Are they safe to use?

No, even if the pRBCs were in the freezer for a short period the fragile nature of the pRBCs precludes its use if frozen for any time.

We have a bag of pRBCs which is a volume larger than we need to use on one particular patient. Can we divide out the bag so that one bag can be used on multiple patients?

Dividing one bag of whole blood into smaller units requires aseptic technique and sterile specialized transfer bags and ports. This practice is not recommended outside of specialized veterinary blood banks. However if you have a sterile blood transfer bag (click for Transfer Bags & Sets) and you use aseptic technique you may continue to store the blood. However, the veterinary practice assumes all responsibility when conducting this procedure. ABRI sells whole blood and pRBCs in varying sizes to accommodate varying sized dogs.

My canine pRBCs expired 1 or more days ago. Can they still be used?

No - expiration dates are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of any product after its expiration date.

 

Feline pRBCs FAQ

Do feline pRBCs have viable platelets?

No, only fresh whole blood which has not been refrigerated has viable platelets. ABRI can supply this product to you. Please call (800) 243-5759 for more details.

We removed our feline pRBCs from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We spiked the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

We do not recommend storage of any blood product for future use once the bag has been spiked.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of pRBCS to administer to a cat?

Administration of 1 ml of pRBCS per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

Are feline pRBCs blood type specific?

Yes.

I have a cat which needs pRBCS and I do not know the blood type of the recipient and thus do not know which product to order.

Because of the presence of naturally occurring alloantibodies, all cats should be typed and/or cross matched before any transfusion. We recommend keeping a commercial blood typing kit such as Alvedia or Rapid H test kit (click for Hematology Supplies) in your hospital so the recipient can be typed and  the pRBCs ordered based on those results.  Under ideal circumstances, a major cross match to either your or our donor are also recommended (click for Hematology Supplies).  

My feline pRBCs arrived with thawed ice packs. The product is still cold to the touch. Are they acceptable to use?

Product shipped at 1-12⁰ C is considered acceptable. One or more of the bags of pRBCs will have a HemoTemp™ monitor on the back of the bag - if any of the numbers are visible then the temperature of the pRBCs has not exceed 12⁰C. If no numbers are visible, please contact us immediately (800-243-5759).

How do you interpret the HemoTemp™ monitors?

HemoTemp™ monitors only show what the temperature of the blood unit is at the exact moment that you look at the indicator. It cannot tell you the history of the blood unit. If there is no color in any of the windows then the blood unit is above 12 degrees C or below 0 degrees C. The interpretation of the indicator is based on the color of the numbers. See the HemoTemp™ product bulletin for more information. The HemoTemp™ monitors are used for shipping and indicate temps up to 12 degrees C. Whole blood and pRBCs should not be stored long term at temps above 4 degrees C. Anything above this will significantly reduce viability and shelf life of the product.

We removed our pRBCs from the refrigerator and allowed it to warm to room temperature but ended up not needing to use it. We did not spike the port with a blood administration set. Can we put it back in the refrigerator for another use?

Once the temperature of the pRBCs exceeds 6°C (43⁰F), it must be returned to the refrigerator and used within 24 hours. Blood banking standards state if feline pRBCs are out of the refrigerator for more than 5 minutes, it is considered to be at room temperature and thus must be stored in the refrigerator and used within 24 hours.

We inadvertently placed our pRBCs in the freezer. Are they safe to use?

No, even if the pRBCs were in the freezer for a short period the fragile nature of the RBC precludes its use if frozen for any time.

My feline pRBCs expired 1 or more days ago. Can they still be used?

No, expiration dates are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of any product after its expiration date.

Canine and Feline Fresh Frozen and Frozen Plasma FAQ 

Do you have information on the average IgG level in your canine plasma?

Testing on random samples at a veterinary diagnostic laboratory has shown our dogs have IgG levels between 1000-1400 mg/dL. Published IgG levels in healthy vaccinated adult dogs range from 670-1650 mg/dL.

Does fresh frozen plasma or frozen plasma have viable platelets?

No, only fresh whole blood which has not been refrigerated has viable platelets.

Do you sell canine platelet rich plasma (PRP)?

Yes, this is a custom order product. Please call (800) 243-5759 for more details.

Are fresh frozen/frozen canine plasma products blood type specific?

Fresh frozen/frozen canine plasma canine products are not type specific from our facility because our procedures minimize RBC contamination and all donors are DEA antibody negative.

Are fresh frozen/frozen feline plasma products blood type specific?

Yes, feline plasma is type specific due to the presence of alloantibodies in cats.

My canine/feline fresh frozen plasma arrived thawed. Can it still be used?

If the product arrives thawed and the temperature is less than 53.6° F, it can be refrozen and used as frozen plasma. Be sure to re-label the product as "frozen plasma" and add 4 years to the original expiration date shown on the label - however, this plasma will not contain any of the labile coagulation factors that are present in fresh frozen plasma. If the product is above 53.6° F it must be used within 24 hours.

My canine/feline frozen plasma arrived thawed. Can it still be used?

If the product arrives thawed and the temperature is less than 50 ° F, it can be refrozen. If the product is above 53.6° F it must be used within 24 hours.

We mistakenly put our fresh frozen plasma in the refrigerator and it thawed. What should we do?

As long as the plasma was maintained in the refrigerator for a period less than 26 days it can either be refrozen or maintained in the refrigerator. If you choose to refreeze the thawed product re-label it as "frozen plasma" and add 4 years to the original expiration date. If you choose to maintain the product in the refrigerator, you must use the thawed plasma within 26 days - however, this plasma will not contain any of the labile coagulation factors and should be relabeled as “frozen plasma” (as opposed to fresh frozen plasma).

We mistakenly put our frozen plasma in the refrigerator and it thawed. What should we do?

As long as the plasma was maintained in the refrigerator for a period less than 26 days it can either be refrozen or maintained in the refrigerator. If you choose to maintain the product in the refrigerator, you must use the thawed plasma within 26 days.

We removed a bag of fresh frozen plasma for a particular patient from the freezer and allowed it to thaw in the refrigerator but ended up not needing to use it for this patient. We did not remove the product from the refrigerator - can it still be used?

As long as the plasma was maintained in the refrigerator for a period less than 26 days it can either be refrozen or maintained in the refrigerator. If you choose to refreeze the thawed product re-label it as "frozen plasma" and add 4 years to the original expiration date. If you choose to maintain the product in the refrigerator, you must use the thawed plasma within 26 days, however this plasma will have no labile coagulation factors and should be relabeled as “frozen plasma” (as opposed to fresh frozen plasma).

We removed a bag of frozen plasma for a particular patient from the freezer and allowed it to thaw in the refrigerator but ended up not needing to use it for this patient. We did not remove the product from the refrigerator- can it still be used?

As long as the plasma was maintained in the refrigerator for a period less than 26 days it can either be refrozen or maintained in the refrigerator. If you choose to maintain the product in the refrigerator, you must use the thawed plasma within 26 days.

We removed our canine/feline fresh frozen plasma from the freezer and thawed it at room temperature but now no longer need to use it. What should we do?

The answer depends on whether the thawed product was allowed to reach room temperature (defined as 12°C (53.6°F)) for longer than 15 minutes:

  • If the product was thawed in the refrigerator and kept at room temperature less than 15 minutes then it can be refrozen but it must be re-labeled as "frozen plasma" and 4 years added to the original expiration date on the label. If you choose not to refreeze the product, you can maintain the product in the refrigerator, but you must use the thawed plasma within 26 days - however this plasma will have no labile coagulation factors that are present in fresh frozen plasma.
  • If the product was thawed and it was kept at room temperature longer than 15 minutes but less than 4 hours then the product can be returned to the refrigerator (not freezer) but it must be used within 24 hours. It should be relabeled as frozen plasma as there is no guarantee as to the functionality of the labile coagulation factors.
  • If the product was thawed and kept at room temperature longer than four hours it must be discarded.

My fresh frozen plasma has expired - must it be thrown away?

Fresh frozen plasma, either canine or feline, can be used as frozen plasma for four additional years after the original expiration date listed on the label. It will not have functioning labile coagulation factors. Be sure to change the label to "frozen plasma" and add 4 years to the expiration date.

My frozen plasma expired 1 or more days ago. Can it still be used?

Expiration dates of frozen plasma are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of frozen plasma after its five year expiration date.

We have a bag of canine fresh frozen plasma/frozen plasma which is a volume larger than we need to use on one particular patient. Can we divide out the bag so that one bag can be used on multiple patients?

Dividing one bag of plasma into smaller units requires aseptic technique and sterile specialized transfer bags and ports. This practice is not recommended outside of specialized veterinary blood banks. However if you have a sterile blood transfer bag (click for Transfer Bags & Sets) and you use aseptic technique you may continue to store the plasma. However, the veterinary practice assumes all responsibility when conducting this procedure. ABRI sells fresh frozen/frozen plasma in varying sizes to accommodate varying sized dogs.

I thought I completely thawed my fresh frozen plasma yet I see flocculent white clumps. What is this?

This is called cryoprecipitate - it is a concentrate of clotting factors and is visible when the product is not completely thawed. Simply allowing the bag to further warm will allow the cryoprecipitate to dissolve. If after being warmed to body temperature the flocculent material has not dissipated, do not use and call us immediately for further instructions (800-243-5759).

What coagulation factors are produced by the liver?

The liver is the primary site of synthesis of coagulation factors except factors V, VIII, and vWf. If you need a plasma product for use in coagulopathy of liver disease, either fresh plasma or fresh frozen plasma may be utilized.

Leukoreduced Canine Frozen Platelet Concentrate FAQ

What is the quantitative value of platelets in your frozen platelet concentrate?

Each 100 ml unit of frozen platelet concentrate contains a minimum of 50 billion platelets. This equates to 500 million platelets per milliliter or 500,000 platelets per microliter.

Is canine frozen platelet concentrate blood type specific?

The product we sell is produced in a manner which minimizes the introduction of pRBC antigens. Thus our product is not blood type specific. However as with any transfusion product, idiosyncratic transfusion reactions may occur.

My canine frozen platelet concentrate arrived thawed. Can it still be used?

No, they must be maintained frozen during the transport. Call us immediately if this occurs (800-243-5759).

We thawed our canine frozen platelet concentrate but no longer need to use it. Can it be refrozen?

No, this product must be utilized within four hours of thawing. It cannot be refrozen or refrigerated.

My canine frozen platelets have thawed and have white clumps. Are they ok?

Please call us immediately if this occurs (800-243-5759).

My frozen canine platelet concentrate expired 1 or more days ago. Can it still be used?

No, expiration dates of frozen canine platelet concentrate are assigned to protect the safety of the transfusion recipient. We cannot recommend the use of frozen canine platelet concentrate after its six month expiration date.

We have a bag of frozen canine platelet concentrate which is a volume larger than we need to use on one particular patient. Can we divide out the bag so that one bag can be used on multiple patients?

No, once thawed platelets must be used within four hours. They cannot be refrigerated or refrozen.

Canine Lyophilized Albumin FAQ

My lyophilized albumin arrived at room temperature but the bottle says to keep the product refrigerated. Is the product ok to use?

Un-reconstituted canine lyophilized albumin is stable at room temperature thus it may be shipped to you without ice packs. We recommend long term storage of the un-reconstituted canine lyophilized albumin in the refrigerator as refrigeration provides a stable temperature.

We accidently left our un-reconstituted canine lyophilized albumin out of the refrigerator. Is it ok?

Yes. Un-reconstituted canine lyophilized albumin is stable at room temperature. However we recommend refrigerator storage of the un-reconstituted product as refrigeration provides a stable temperature.

Once reconstituted how long is the canine albumin stable before it must be discarded?

Six hours.

We reconstituted our canine lyophilized albumin but now do not need to use it. Can we refrigerate the product for future use?

Once reconstituted the product must be used within six hours. The reconstituted product must be kept refrigerated until ready to use to reduce the risk of bacterial contamination.

Can we dilute the reconstituted lyophilized albumin to co-administer with IV fluids?

Yes as long as the IV fluid is 0.9% NaCL without additives.

Canine Lyophilized Cryoprecipitate FAQ

Can reconstituted lyophilized canine cryoprecipitate be transferred to an empty sterile NaCL or other sterile IV bag for ease of administration?

Yes, as long as the bag contained no other fluids or medicines other than 0.9% NaCL and aseptic technique is used.

My lyophilized cryoprecipitate arrived with thawed ice packs but the bottle says to keep the product refrigerated. Is the product ok to use?

Un-reconstituted lyophilized cryoprecipitate is stable when kept at a temperature between 34-43°F (1-6°C). Un-reconstituted lyophilized cryoprecipitate must be stored in the refrigerator.

We accidently left our un-reconstituted lyophilized cryoprecipitate out of the refrigerator. Is it ok?

No, there is no guarantee as to the stability of the clotting factors once the product, even if un-reconstituted, rises to a temperature above 43°F (6°C).

How much time should I allow to lapse between reconstitution and administration?

Administration within two hours of reconstitution is recommended. Due to the delicate nature of the clotting factors it is recommended that this product be rehydrated immediately prior to use. Allowing the reconstituted product to sit will, over time, result in decreased potency due to clotting factor degradation.

Once reconstituted how long is the lyophilized cryoprecipitate stable before it must be discarded?

Twenty four hours if refrigerated. Room temperature storage of reconstituted cryoprecipitate is not recommended due to degradation of labile clotting factors.

We reconstituted our lyophilized cryoprecipitate but now do not need to use it. Can we refrigerate the product for future use?

Yes, but it must be used within 24 hours of rehydration.

What is the dosage of canine lyophilized cryoprecipitate?

One vial (unit) per 10 kilograms of body weight.

What is your recommended administration timeframe for prophylactic administration of cryoprecipitate ?

The goal is to have active clotting factors circulating at the time point of hemorrhage and required hemostasis (e.g.- at the initiation of surgical incision). We recommend administering the cryoprecipitate no greater than 2 hours prior to the initiation of surgery and to continue administration intra-operative. Ideally an extra dosage of cryoprecipitate should be on hand (but not reconstituted) in the case of unforeseen excessive hemorrhage.

 

Whole Blood Collection FAQ

You offer five different 450 ml blood collection bags for dogs. All of them are prefilled with anticoagulant. How do I know which bag to order?

The bag to utilize is dependent upon the final product you wish to obtain. As each case is unique, please call us at (800) 243-5759 for personalized recommendations.

What is the minimum amount of blood to collect in blood bags to avoid citrate toxicity and maximize storage? What is the maximum amount of blood I can place in a bag to avoid underdosage of anti-coagulant and subsequent in vitro clotting?

The general rule of transfusion medicine is a blood volume +/- 10% the anticipated volume of the pre-filled anticoagulant blood bag. The chart below calculates the minimum/maximum blood volumes to be collected per size bag.

Bag Size

Minimum Blood Volume

Maximum Blood Volume

450 ml

405 ml

495 ml

250 ml

225 ml

275 ml

When adding anticoagulant for the feline/small animal syringe set how much ACD-A anticoagulant should I use?

The manufacturer’s recommendation is a 1:7 ratio (for every one milliliter of anticoagulant collect 7 milliliters of blood)

What is the difference between ACD-A and CPDA-1 anticoagulant?

ACD-A allows for a red cell shelf life of 28 days, while CPDA-1 allows for a shelf life of 35 days due to the addition of adenine. Unfortunately CPDA-1 is no longer available for sale as a stand alone product (however, it is the standard anticoagulant of pre-filled whole blood collection bags). The ratio of anticoagulant to blood is the same (1:7) for both anticoagulants.

You sell ACD-A in a 500 ml bag which is imprinted with “for single use only”. Can the contents be used for several patients on different days?

The ACD-A product is manufactured and packaged for human use - thus the product is labeled as “single use only”. The use of this product in veterinary medicine is considered “off label”. If aseptic technique utilizing a spike port (Hemo-Tap® or equivalent) is utilized the product can be used as a multi dose container as long as sterility is maintained. As use of the solution beyond the FDA labeled single use only is at the discretion of the user, no claims or warranties are made by ABRI as to the period of sterility or efficacy once the bag is entered. The contents are stable at room temperature.

I already placed 6.3 milliliters of anticoagulant in my feline syringe set in anticipation of collecting 45 ml of whole blood (total volume in syringe should be 51.3 ml at conclusion of the blood draw). However I was not able to collect 45 milliliters of blood from the cat. What is the minimum amount of blood that must be collected so I can administer what I have collected thus far?

Utilizing a 1:7 ratio of anticoagulant to whole blood with a +/-10% whole blood overage/underage would yield a minimum of 41 ml of whole blood must be collected (total volume in syringe will thus be 47.3 ml). Conversely, you may collect up to 49 ml of whole blood (total volume in syringe will be 55.3 ml) when a starting anticoagulant volume of 6.3 ml is used.

I was not able to collect the minimum 41 milliliters of whole blood into my feline syringe set. What should I do? Discard the set and start over with the same cat? Can I take the syringe set apart and try the same cat with a new butterfly needle?

The best approach, regardless of the cat, is to discard the used syringe set in its entirety and start with a new syringe set and anticoagulant. If the blood is being collected for storage (as opposed to immediate administration), we do not recommend changing the butterfly needle due to possible contamination and disruption of the closed status of the collection set. Whether or not the same cat can be utilized for another attempt depends upon the judgment of the attending veterinarian. We do not recommend utilization of the same cat once a volume greater than 10 ml has been withdrawn.

How much does one milliliter of blood weigh?

One milliliter of blood weighs 1.06 grams.

How much does one milliliter of AS solution weigh?

One milliliter of AS solution weighs 1.00 grams.

What is the administration rate of the blood administration sets ABRI sells (feline, Y and straight)?

20 drops per milliliter for all three.

When using a blood collection bag which is prefilled with anticoagulant what is the weight of the blood once the bag has the minimum, ideal, and maximum blood volume.

The following chart gives the minimum, ideal and maximum weight of the blood only (not the bag or prefilled anticoagulant) for the 250 ml and 450 ml canine blood collection bags. The ideal is the goal - however the maximum weight is included to provide information as the +10% blood volume allowable with the 1:7 anticoagulant ratio. Similarly, the minimum blood weight is also included for the -10% blood volume to 1:7 anticoagulant ratio. Because the weight of the bag and anticoagulant have slight variability, it is prudent to always weigh the prefilled anticoagulant bag PRIOR to infusing any blood into the bag.

Bag Size

Ideal blood weight

Minimum blood weight 

Maximum blood weight

250 ml

265 grams

239 grams

292 grams

450 ml

477 grams 

430 grams

525 grams

We do not have a gram scale for weighing the blood we want to collect from a donor. What should we do?

We do not recommend collecting blood without the use of gram scale as subjective assessments of blood volume in the bag are usually inaccurate.

What is the AS-3 additive volume on pRBCS?

AS-3 is an additive containing dextrose, adenine, monobasic sodium phosphate, sodium chloride, sodium citrate, and citric acid. Canine red cell shelf life can be extended to 42 days at 1-6⁰C when AS-3 is utilized. Feline red cell shelf life can be extended to 35 days at 1-6⁰C when AS-3 is utilized. These dates are not based on species specific scientific studies but rather anecdotal veterinary publications and extrapolation from human literature. Early research to establish red cell viability used a canine model, so extrapolations from FDA standards are considered valid and generally accepted for veterinary blood banking. Adjustments have been made for felines based on reduced red cell life in circulation. Additional species red cell viability should also consider variances in normal cell life when determining expiration date.

The additive is not for whole blood, it is for use in pRBCs only. The additive must be added to the pRBC unit within 72 hours of collection. After separating a unit of whole blood into components, AS-3 can be added to the pRBC unit. Commonly used ratios of AS-3 solution are based on volume of whole blood drawn, not on packed cell volume. Animal Blood Resources uses a ratio of 1 : 4.5 for red cell preservation, plus or minus 10%. This is the ratio mandated by the FDA for human blood.

No claims or warranties are made by ABRI as to the commonly applied ratios or red cell viability periods. Determination of the appropriate amount of AS-3 to add to red cells and determination of red cell viability is solely at the discretion of the user.

I have a large/exotic animal I need to separate whole blood into components. Can you do this for me?

Yes, if the whole blood is shipped to our Michigan location we can spin the blood down and separate the whole blood into components. The largest size bag our centrifuge holds is one liter. Please contact us for processing, shipping and pricing information prior to blood collection.

What is the volume of anti-coagulant in the pre-filled 250 ml and 450 ml blood collection bags?

  1. The 250 ml bag is pre-filled with 35 ml of CPDA-1
  2. The 450 ml single collection bag is pre-filled with 63 ml of CPDA-1
  3. The 450 ml triple collection bag is pre-filled with 63 ml of CPD

What is the difference between CPD and CPDA-1 anti-coagulants?

  1. CPD is citrate-phosphate-dextrose and red cells have a shelf life of 21 days
  2. CPDA-1 is citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and red cells have a shelf life of 35 days

We have expired transfer bags- is it okay/advisable to re-sterilize them?

No, once expired the bags should not be utilized as sterility of contents cannot be assured past the manufacturers original expiration date.

We have expired 250 ml or 450 ml blood collection bags prefilled with anticoagulant- is it okay/advisable to re-sterilize them?

No, once expired the bags should not be utilized as sterility of contents or efficacy of the anti-coagulant cannot be assured past the manufacturers original expiration date.

What is the donor tubing length on the canine blood collection bags?

  1. 250 ml donor tubing is 3 feet
  2. 450 ml donor tubing is 5 feet

I need to collect blood from a dog to be administered as whole blood. What collection bag do you recommend I use?

If you will be administering whole blood then the best choice is either a 250 ml or 450 ml single collection bag. Use the 250 ml size if the donor is less than 50 pounds.

I need to collect blood from a dog to be processed into pRBCs and plasma. What collection bag do you recommend I use?

Unless you have a refrigerated centrifuge capable of holding a filled 450 ml collection bag, it will be very difficult to separate canine whole blood into pRBCS and plasma. Unlike cats, canine red cells do not spontaneously rouleaux or separate. If you do have a centrifuge, the choice of collection bag depends on whether you want the Optisol red cell extender pre-filled in the pRBC bag. Our blanket recommendation is to use the Optisol triple collection bag.

What are the centrifugation specs for use of your feline collection bags to separate plasma from pRBCs?

Do not centrifuge feline bags at speeds greater than 3000 RPM or for longer than 5 minutes at a time. If you do not have a centrifuge you may use a sedimentation technique.

Product Administration FAQs

What fluids and medicines are compatible with FFP/FP/WB/pRBCs?

Only 0.9% NaCl with no additives may be used to facilitate infusion of blood products, no other type of IV fluids may be used. Standard transfusion guidelines are no medications should be added to any blood product unless there is approval by the FDA or there is adequate documentation the medicine is safe for use with blood products.

Can I use a standard IV fluid pump to administer any blood or component product?

It is not recommended to use an IV fluid pump, unless the pump and administration set are SPECIFICALLY designed and marketed for use with blood or any other blood component (pRBCs, plasma, albumin, platelets). Alternative options are a syringe pump or gravity flow methods.

What are the limitations on the use of a Hemo Nate filter?

The Hemo Nate filter has been studied extensively by the FDA for use in neonates. It is preferred over the fiber membranes and has been shown to have less impact on the red cells. It was designed for 50 ml of whole blood and 20 ml of red cells. The filter size is 18 microns pore width. Overloading the filter or not having a clean product can affect the performance of the filter and potentially damage cells. The filter is not designed for nor has it been tested for safety using syringe pumps. If using a syringe pump, it should be used at the lowest setting possible. The cells have to flow freely through the filter, not be forced under pressure through the filter.

Can the same catheter be used to administer different blood products?

Yes, however we do not recommend the co-administration of different products simultaneously. You can flush the catheter with 0.9% NaCl in between the products - do not use LRS or any other calcium containing IV fluid.

What are the specifications on your blood administration sets?

Administration Set Type Priming Volume Tubing Length Drip Rate for Gravity Flow Filter Pore Size
Canine Y Administration Set 24 milliliters 60 inches 20 drops/ml 170 microns
Canine Straight Administration Set 19 milliliters 58 inches 20 drops/ml 170 microns
Feline Administration Set 7 milliliters 31 inches 20 drops/ml 170 microns

I read a paper where the use of a syringe pump was associated with lysis of canine red blood cells whereas the gravity flow method did not induce lysis. Do you have a gravity flow administration set for use with cats?

Yes, ABRI is the sole distributor for a feline specific gravity flow a blood administration set for cats. The set has a small priming volume of 7 ml and the tubing length is only 31 inches.

What is the difference between a Y versus a Straight canine blood administration set?

The straight set has only one spike whereas the Y set has two spikes. With the Y set you can use the same administration line to consecutively administer two IV products through separate spikes (reduces the possibility of contamination if one administration set is to be used for two products).

What is the dose rate for administering whole blood to dogs?

The rate of the administration must take into account the condition of the patient. Published recommendations for whole blood administration is 5-10 ml/kg/hr in normovolemic dogs and this rate can be increased in hypovolemic patients up to a maximum of 20 ml/kg/hr. A standard maximum transfusion volume of 20 ml/kg/day is often recommended.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of pRBCS to administer to a dog?

Administration of 1 ml of pRBCS per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of pRBCS to administer to a cat?

Administration of 1 ml of pRBCS per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of whole blood to administer to a dog?

Administration of 2 ml of whole blood per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

What is the formula for calculating the volume of whole blood to administer to a cat?

Administration of 2 ml of whole blood per kilogram of body weight is expected to raise the PCV 1% assuming no ongoing loss or destruction is occurring.

Cross Matching FAQ

Why should a cross match be performed?

The major and minor cross match assist in providing serologically compatible blood products and mitigating the possibility of a transfusion reaction.  The primary function of the cross match is detection of significant levels of pRBCs directed alloantibodies in the donor and recipient’s plasma/serum. (Click for Hematology Supplies)

What are the limitations of a cross match?

A compatible cross match does not prevent sensitization or delayed transfusion reactions but will help in identifying potentially acute transfusion reactions.

Should I use plasma or serum for the cross match?

Fibrin and lipidemia potentially confound testing so a fasting serum sample is recommended.

What is a major cross match?

The major cross match, which is the most important, detects alloantibodies in the recipient’s serum which may lyse, agglutinate, or react with the donor’s erythrocytes.

What is a minor cross match?

The minor cross match detects alloantibodies in the donor’s serum which may lyse, agglutinate, or react with the recipient’s erythrocytes. The minor cross match is of lesser concern than the major cross match as the donor’s plasma/serum volume infused into the recipient is small, particularly in pRBC products.

What are the limitations with performing a cross match on pRBCs purchased from ABRI?

A major cross match can easily be done with the aliquot of donor pRBCs attached to the bag and the recipient’s plasma. When utilizing pRBCs a minor cross match cannot be done as there is no plasma from the donor available unless you specifically purchase the donor’s accompanying plasma. The minor cross match is of lesser concern than the major cross match as the donor’s plasma/serum volume infused into the recipient is small, particularly in pRBC products.

Does ABRI perform testing to determine the presence of RBC alloantibodies in dogs?

Yes, we have developed a specialized test for the detection of anti-DEA antibodies, it is code AbSCRN. Please submit 3.0 ml of serum to our Stockbridge, Michigan laboratory (Click for Canine Tests).

Can I have ABRI perform a cross match with my recipient and an ABRI donor and select the blood product based upon those results?

Yes, to do this you will need to submit 1.0 ml serum and 1.0ml EDTA blood sample from your donor to us. Please call for specific instructions on this test prior to submitting blood. (517-851-8244)

Can I have ABRI perform a cross match with my recipient and my donor?

Yes, to do this you will need to submit 1.0 ml serum and a 1.0 ml EDTA blood sample from both your donor and recipient to our Stockbridge, Michigan laboratory (Click for Canine Tests).

Are test kits available so I can do the cross match in our hospital?

Yes, both DMS and Alvedia manufacture cage side test kits. DMS laboratories manufactures cross match kits for use in either cats or dogs. Presently the Alvedia cross match kit is only available for dogs. ABRI is a distributor of these kits.

I do not have a test kit and I need to do an in house cross match. Do you have instructions?

ABRI has developed an instruction sheet (click for Blood Cross Match document).

There are several peer reviewed journal articles and textbooks with step by step instructions.

Are the DMS cross match kits accurate when the dog has autoagglutination hemolysis?

Per the manufacturer the cross match kits are accurate in both auto-agglutination and hemolysis.

References for Cross Matching

Feldman, B. and C. Sink (2006). Practical Transfusion Medicine. Jackson, WY, Teton NewMedia.

Haldane, S., J. Roberts, et al. (2004). "Transfusion Medicine." Compendium of Continuing Education for the Practicing Veterinarian: 502-517.

Lanevschi, A. and J. Wardrop (2001). "Principles of Transfusion Medicine in Small Animals." Canadian Veterinary Journal 42: 447-454.

Vaden, S., J. Knoll, et al. (2009). Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult- Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures Canine and Feline, Wiley-Blackwell.

Vap, L. (2010). An Update on Blood Typing, Crossmatching, and Doing No Harm in Transfusing Dogs and Cats. DVM 360.

Vigano, F., C. Fragio, et al. (2008). Select Topics in Canine and Feline Emergency Medicine, Royal Canin. 1: 110-116.

 

 

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